Aron Kravits - Artist Website
Apr 18

Surrealism art – history, basis and modern representor

About surrealism art

           “Russian” Salvador Dali

Surrealism is a special period in cinema, literature and, of course, painting. It was formed in France in 1924. It is believed that it stopped its existence in 1969. This trend has had a significant impact on the formation of human consciousness. The main representatives of this kind of art are considered to be Salvador Dali, Louis Aragon, Joan Miro, Andre Breton, Luis Bunuel. Originating as a literary movement, surrealism received the status of a particular movement in contemporary art as a whole one. Followers of surrealism did not plan to create a school or direction. They sought to implement a “global revolutionary project” that applies to all spheres of thought and action. Surrealism was supposed to be a new way of consciousness.
The direction has experienced several public crises and the Second World war. Gradually penetrating into public culture, surrealism became a component of postmodernism. Apollinaire (French poet) called his works, in which disconnected human feelings were shown that they represent something more than reality. So he explained what surrealism is in such a way.
Later, André Breton used the term. He published the magazine of surrealism in Paris, it published his concept as a new direction in art. 1924, this year is considered to be the point from which surrealism in painting began to exist. André Masson and Max Ernst joined to the followers of this art. In 1925 the first exhibition of the surrealists took place. Paintings of different artists were exhibited there and they were not similar with each other. Surrealism in painting was reflected in the paintings of such masters as Picasso, Miró, Henri, Ernst, Chirico, Klee and others.

                                                            Surrealism art is the new direction!

“Cut my heart to me – you will find Paris in it!”                               Louis Aragon.

According to Breton, a new direction was meant to reflect the secret desires and needs of people. And in order to comprehend the surrealism in painting and other areas of culture, it was enough to have a child’s spontaneity and receptivity. Fine art focuses primarily on the most powerful of all physical senses. It is about sight. It allows people to control the world. Representatives of surrealism provided a great importance to the sight. Reality had value to them only in the sense in which it was clear to them. Surrealism in painting, as in any other spheres of culture, was influenced by the philosophy of Bergson and the theory of psychoanalysis of Freud.
The followers destinations were dissatisfied with the existing reality. The discontent they expressed in their artworks. Representatives of surrealism declared the reality as the source of all evil, they were opposed to the abstract world in general. They believed that any social revolution is not required. To change things is real by abandoning the logic, reason, conventional and traditional world view, absurd and poor delineation of things which are beautiful and ugly, good and bad, false and true. Representatives of surrealism art convince the rejection of traditional ideas that reflect the norms of human interactions. Fine art was considered to be the main field of artistic practice for the followers. It should be noted that in this area not only painting, but also sculpture are included.

Creation of a peculiar way, not in accordance with generally accepted standards, and is the main goal, which is followed and achieved by surrealism. Painting in this style, we were supposed to represent the audience the most famous and amazing paintings. The way the author of the work sees a particular object in the supernatural reality, but not in everyday life. Modern surrealism still attracts the eyes of many viewers with its unusual and colorful images. For more than half a century, there is the style in the world of art and artists are still trying to create more supernatural images that attract the attention of admirers of this style. Surrealism is based on the belief in a higher reality; on associative forms which are still remained unheeded; in the omnipotence of dream, in the non-use game of thoughts. It seeks to destroy other psychic mechanisms and to take their place to address the most important problems of life. Hence there are two main principles of surrealism: automatic writing and recording dreams because in dreams, according to Freud the deep truths of life are opened, and automatic writing (excluding censorship intelligence) helps the most adequately to convey them through surreal images. Such a method of creation of the artist plunges “into the inner extravaganza.” From this dreams and visions are realized by various surrealists as the only true state of being. The art is interpreted by them as a kind of narcotic drug that is alcohol-free and drug leads a person into a state of dreams, when chains that fetter the spirit are broken.

Written dreams and ways of creating drawings

          “Harlequin Carnival” by Joan Miró

One of the foundations of surrealism, on which the highest priority of attention was paid, has become the method by which dreams were written or sketched immediately after waking dreams, hallucinations, subliminal images, while their understanding is not affected by the real consciousness and logic will not run into the process. This method of Freud’s psychoanalysis, the so-called analysis of delivered thought possible due to both rapid monologue, when the person has no time to make any judgment. The leading role in surrealism belongs to the dreams which are used in Sigmund Freud’s research. Considering that in the dream brains live richer and more interesting than the waking mind of man, causing quite happily take the extraordinary scenes that in real life would be shocked. Andre Breton said: “I believe that in the future, dream and reality which are these two so different in appearance will merge into a kind of absolute reality, the surreal.” Max Ernst developed his visual imagination, looking at the subjects in irrational form. Thus, he certainly used the advice of Leonardo da Vinci – but, of course, they were perceived through the lens of Freud, who interpreted them in his own way and this tendency to contemplation of divorce on an old wall or bizarre rocks, exciting the imagination in unexpected ways and combinations. One of the most well-known Freudian ideas, according to which the error, slip of the tongue, sharpness are appeared, this uncontrolled emissions of boiling, fermenting subconscious matter, which thus breaks through the frozen crust of “Ego” also found support among a stormy surrealists. For example, Salvador Dali wrote: “Mistakes are always a something sacred, never try to correct them the contrary. They should rationalize and generalize after it will be possible to sublimate them.”

Two main directions in surrealist art – which ones?

Researchers distinguish between two main currents in surrealist paintings: the so-called organic (or biomorphic) surrealism and naturalistic (or hyper-realism) one. The first is considered to be the most “pure” form of surrealism, for in it the principle of “automatic writing” was observed with

   “The Great War” by René Magritte

greater consistency. Works in this direction (to its main representatives include Miró, Masson, Matta) are based on the establishment of some other-worlds with the help of semi-abstract biomorphic creatures and shapes, which are far from forms visually perceived reality. Another direction (the main representatives of which are Dali, Magritte, Delvaux) creates paradoxical worlds by combining prescription illusory objects and creatures of reality and imagination which is created by the artists in some extremely absurd from the standpoint of ordinary logic combinations and situations. This direction is more consciously based on Freudianism, as it visually illustrates many of its provisions.

 

Surrealists complain existing reality – they declare it like the source of all evils. They are opposed to the abstract world of civilization in general. No social revolution, it is not necessary – you just abandon reason and logic from the usual perception of things. We must abandon all traditions, destroying all the usual ideas about human relationships norms. In other words, the supposed surrealist revolution should be done to release a person from feelings and responsibilities of family, civil, class, sense of justice, loyalty and duty. The works of surrealist art, created from the identified instincts, should reflect the worst things that there are in person. Monster is in every of us, and it is also forbidden and dark corners of the human subconscious conflict between the mind and the “dark forces”, proclaimed by the surrealists basis of art found his clear and vivid expression in the scenes of violence that abound in all kinds of surreal art.
As a practical step-by-step surrealists ousted from the sphere of art logic and reason, replacing them with semi-mystical, but essentially blind “intuitive opening of the eyes” fallen into a state of trance artists. Surrealism was not just one of many areas in the avant-garde art. The XXth century is most fully and urgently in artistic form reflected the feeling of the era, as a global transition phase from the classical art of the last two or three thousand years for something fundamentally different; this is where there have been many of the principles, methods of art of thinking, even the techniques and the individual elements . Post-culture in the second half of the XX century finds surrealism as widely used in virtually all types of modern art. Now it is used in films, television, music videos, theater, photography, decorative arts.

Victor Brauner Portrait of Andre Breton

                                                                     Dali’s explanation 

Nature and human civilization (the power of nature and soulless civilization), attempts to understand the person itself, his spiritual and natural essence, failures in this trying or ugly conclusion of it – all it is in focus of Dali. He did not hide that draws the world which is revealed to man in a nightmare, in the hallucinations of a sick imagination when mind is awaken and a person cannot control the movements of his/her inner life. In the opinion of Dali, such art is about contradictory and tragic life. Generally tragic it is important that the focus of all the works of this artist.
Connecting incompatible, he manifested in his artistic method as a tragic: portraying the terrible creatures and monstrous, monstrous and beautiful creatures as well, Salvador Dali used artistic techniques and pictorial letters to the great masters of the Renaissance, Baroque, Classicism, and Romanticism. One of the artistic techniques which is used by Dali is that he appealed to the purely literary point – to signing his paintings in general and to signing a long, deployed, apparently, and to explain his drawings and in order to get more work the imagination of the audience. Thus, Salvador Dali sought to portray the subconscious in person because it is not controlled by reason and the mystical, supernatural life in general. Each of his drawings is the result of self-examination and analysis of the world: the phenomena of nature as interested in the artist, as the person himself. For philosophical opposition to human civilization it uses achievements in various fields of science: physics, chemistry, biology, medicine. Realism of Dali is combined with fantastic drawings which demonstrate tragic world and events. In his works, Salvador Dali created a kind of mythical world which is full of endless characters of human life. It creates its own myths about real life, his paintings are myths.

Like a conclusion

To sum up the thoughts about the artistic side of creativity of Dali, we should say that he is one of the most brilliant artists of his century. It is the painter whose naturalistic drawings possible of subjects quite compete with the great art of the old masters, and the power of his imagination surpassed many of them, but, paradoxically, in the depth of creativity of Dali, the scope of his powerful imagination, you cannot e

“In the Tower of the Blind” ANDRÉ MASSON

nter without considering the peculiarities of his mind, allowing him to give integrity and coherence of the most incredible and illogical combinations.
Why surrealism eventually takes over the world and becomes the popular culture which is full of quotations from Dali and Magritte is a mystery for the majority of critics. Obviously, not all the artists from this circle were revolutionaries, and many for years worked for the tracing and did not differ a good taste, but if you ask conditional passer-by on the street, about what the magic of the art for him/her is – most likely person will immediately recall broken watch or a rain for people in their bowler hats. Surrealism remains attractive things because it seemed to be frozen in time, absorbing the vivid images, extravagant poems and nothing on similar witty movies, and glide through the pages of its history nice. Perhaps this is the friendliest art of XX century, the keys to which all are still in range. And no matter how much was in the painting surrealist surah, the main thing in it is the realism, the recognition of the existing facilities, which are distorted and reversed. And it is better to recognize and solve always than to get lost and do not understand. It is well-known fact that drawings of such art direction are not good for using at homes where people and especially children live. Such pictures effect on the mind, mood and life acceptation, so it is important to look at them slowly and not to lay to heart everything what is painted here.

                                                                                Modern representor

Magic drawings of Tobias Quen, perhaps, can be called grim and terrible. There is something Gothicand infernal in his paintings. Besides, you can see the author’s narrative tradition of European terrible tales. The heroes of his paintings are frighteningly cold and arrogant. Their movements are reminiscent of footage from the anime. And if you draw the line, then the pictures of Tobias tell more about the dark side than light one. Modern paintings in the style of surrealism of Tobias are no less exciting and original. They are more than a fantasy, madness and even a bit of mischief. Here again, you can trace the features of Japanese animation, but it is more important there are traces of the birth of a new steep pattern, awesome new story. The sketches often are good and give a chance to meet the animals, which certainly increases the metaphorical art which is made by Tobias. By concentrating the main features of contemporary surrealism, painting of Tobias Quen are fully blown and turn imagination and perception of reality. Its fantastic illustration of scary is mysterious, and pencil sketches are bizarrely varied.

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